China

China

China is a republic in East Asia. China borders North Korea in the north- east, Russia and Mongolia in the north, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan in the northwest and west, and Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam in the southwest.

China is the world’s most populous country, and the world’s third largest in total surface content after Russia and Canada. China is Asia’s largest country, dominating the eastern part of the Asian continent.

The name China, used in several Northern European languages, comes from the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE ). The official Chinese name is Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo, ‘People’s Republic of China’, and is derived from Zhongguo, which suggests ‘Middle Kingdom’.

The national anthem is Yìyongjun Jìnxingqu ( March for the Volunteers).

Geography and environment

China has a long coastline, in the east towards the Yellow Sea (Huáng Hǎi), in the south – east towards the East China Sea (Dōng Hǎi) and in the south towards the South China Sea (Nán Hǎi).

In the east, along the coast of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are large and densely populated alluvial plains, while grasslands dominate the border with the Mongolian highlands in the north. Southern China is characterized by ridges and small mountain ranges, while the central eastern parts of China are participating for the two major rivers in China – the Yellow River and the Yangzi River. In the southwest there are large mountain areas, such as the Himalayas, and in the north-west dry mountain plains and desert areas, such as Taklamakan and Gobi.

China’s climate is characterized by dry seasons and wet monsoons, leading to large differences in temperature between winter and summer. In winter, cold and dry northern winds come from high-lying areas; In the summer, warm and humid winds come from low lying southern coastal areas.

Characteristic older buildings of wood

Characteristic older buildings of wood, brick and half-timber in Chengdu, capital of Sichuan Province.

People and society

The population is about 1.4 billion, based on Countryaah. Hankinesar is the name of the largest population group, which constitutes between 90-95 percent of the population in China, and simultaneously is the world’s largest population group. In addition, China has more than 50 small and large cultural and ethnic minorities; main busette in the southwest and northwest.

The annual increase in the population is about half a percent a year; about 60 percent cage in cities. Life expectancy at birth is 74 years for men and 78 for women (2019); in larger cities over 80. The retirement age varies somewhat, but is between 50-55 years for women and 60 years for men.

China has an urban unemployment rate of about four percent, which in practice indicates that most people between the ages of twenty and fifty are in work.

Illiteracy in China is on par with Europe, that is, less than ten percent.

All male Chinese, and many minority groups, use variants of the Chinese language. North Chinese form the basis of putonghua, which is the variant useful in media and teaching. Putonghua becomes useful in talking between users of regional variants that are not mutually intelligible. The largest regional variants (in addition to the North Chinese) are wu, yue, minbei, minnan, gan and xiang. Other major non-Chinese languages ​​used in China are Tibetan, Uyghur and Mongolian.

Taoism (Daoism) and Confucianism are thought systems originating in China; many would say that Confucianism cannot be characterized as a religion. Buddhism comes from India. Other religions are Islam and Christianity. Chinese thought systems are human-centered, unlike Abrahamic religions, which are God-centered. The value system deals with life as a human being and society with other human beings. Chinese scholars are often non-exclusive in the practice of religion and thought system, that is to say that one combines elements from Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism; in practical daily life one is often non-religious.

Organized religion has not, in comparison with Europe, been a separate power factor in China, but has at times been used by the governing powers in China.

State and politics

The Great Hall of the People

The Great Hall of the People (or the Great Hall of the People) in the seat of Heavenly Peace is the seat of the Legislative Assembly’s meetings.

China is a centralized state that has 22 provinces (23 certain Taiwan are counted on), five self-governing territories, four urban communes directly under the state (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing), two special administrative regions; Hong Kong and Macao.

China has been our republic since 1911, when the last imperial dynasty was set aside, and the People’s Republic since 1949 after the Communist Party of China (CCP) took power after a civil war.

The state apparatus is based on two power structures found at all levels in the administrative divisions: the Communist Party of China (CCP) and the People’s Congresses with the government and administration apparatus.

The CCP’s leadership is enshrined in the Chinese Constitution. Some smaller parties have been allowed as long as they support the CCP and do not challenge power. The CCP is the world’s largest political party, with about 90 million members (about seven percent of the population); In practice, everyone in the leading strata within regional and central government, business and cultural life is party members. The party holds many different views about society, economy and culture. Hu Jintao was president and head of state in China from 2003; Xi Jinping took over in March 2013.

China has the world’s largest army (measured in the number of soldiers), with about 2 million soldiers in the standing forces combined in all weapons. The country has traditionally been characterized by a restraint and at times isolationist attitude to the outside world; the principle of non-interference is strongly in China’s foreign policy.

China has been a permanent member of the UN Security Council since 1971, when it took over the seat of the Republic of China / Taiwan. China has been a member of the World Trade Organization since 2001, and the economy of China has consequently been strongly integrated into the world economy.

China is a member of the UN and the UN’s special organizations, among others the World Bank; or by APEC.

History

During the Zhou Dynasty

During the Zhou Dynasty, a transition from slave society to feudal society took place. The Zhou rulers, called kings, lent their clan leaders and allied tribal leaders against becoming vassals of the king and supporting him militarily, as we know it from Europe more than a thousand years later. The picture shows the Zhou king Wuti, who lived in the 5th century BC Painting by Yen Li-pen. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

The history of the Chinese civilization dates back 3500-4000 years, with the oldest scriptural sources dating back to around 1500 BCE. This era is regarded as the beginning of the Chinese historical dynasty, and since that time history has been characterized by unification and expansion, followed by rebellion and disintegration in smaller states. Nevertheless, China has consisted of relatively stable dynasties throughout most of its history.

In the 1800s and 1900s, China experienced both internal turmoil and economic, political and military pressure from other countries. The last imperial dynasty was set aside by a revolution in 1911. This did not lead to any immediate stability, and the country was again split between various warlords and political ideologies in the following decades. In the period 1931 to 1937, China was invaded by Japan several times.

After Japan surrendered in 1945, civil war broke out in China. The Communist Party, led by Mao Zedong, emerged victorious from it with the Socialist Revolution of 1949. Since then, the Communist Party of China has ruled the country. In 1978, Deng Xiaoping came to power and started modernizing the country. From the same year, the one-child policy was also introduced.

The reform policy over the past three decades has led to major changes in the economy in the country, and since 1980 the poverty rate has fallen by more than 85 per cent ( poverty defined as living on about NOK 8 per day).

However, the reform policy has led to greater inequalities, both between individual, between city and country, coast and inland, and in access to health services, pensions and education for people. The decline has also led to great migration and urbanization.

The boxing uprising

The boxing uprising in the spring of 1900 was aimed at all foreign influence in the country, against capital, the powers of the great powers and the missionaries. In June / July, the boxers entered Beijing, and European broadcasters were suspended from the outside world. The uprising was defeated by an international army. At the peace agreement in September 1901, the boxing organization was banned, and China had to pay large damages. The picture shows the alloy yard coming to Beijing 1901.

Economy and business

China is today the world’s second largest national economy; the third largest certainly one with the EU. About 10 percent of the gross domestic product comes from agriculture, 47 percent from industry and 43 percent from services.

China is the world’s largest producer of steel, coal, cement, cotton, grain, meat and fish. The country also dominates the world market for a number of industrial products, which can be judged within a number of electronics, cameras, shoes and clothing. China is the world’s largest car manufacturer.

From the late 1970s started a development of the economy with “The four modernizations” – the modernization of industry, agriculture, defense and science / technology. This also meant a liberalization of the economy by using market economy together with the communist ideology. The state’s planning economy and direct control over the production equipment before the various areas are reduced, but not removed. Special economic zones were established where foreign investment had free terms. These zones became more abundant after a quarter, and China used these fronts to further develop the economy.

Since 1999, Chinese governing bodies have promoted investments abroad as part of the internationalization of Chinese business. With this, the boards also hope in the long run to get better quality, more diversity and better reputation for Chinese product in general. In addition to investment and industry acquisitions, leading Chinese banks have also increased lending abroad, helping to strengthen China’s role in the global economy in general, and in single-country borrowing countries in particular.

Knowledge and culture

Chinese art has been dominant before Austasian art. Painting, calligraphy, architecture, sculpture and decorative art forms among other ceramics, bronze, jade and silk have been produced in China through the ages.

China today has several internationally acclaimed writers such as Gao Xingjian, Ma Jian and Mo Yan; some have had problems with Chinese censorship and are now living in exile. Chinese Ai Weiwei is considered one of the world’s leading contemporary artists.

China has a rich tradition before folk music played on traditional instruments. In the later years, western pop and rock have also gained a foothold. One example is Cui Jian, considered as perhaps the most important exponent of Chinese rock since the 1980s. China has become the fastest growing film industry in the world, and is today the third largest film producer in the world.

Education has traditionally been seen as an important method of social mobility, but the level of education has been low in basic poverty. The CCP has initiated educational programs which since 1949 have reduced the percentage of illiterates considerably. Compulsory school and advanced school are free, while there are tuition fees for higher education, with admissions based on written exams.

Chinese mass media is more or less controlled by the CCP. All newspapers and TV are subject to censorship, and in addition, self-censorship is common to avoid problems with the governing powers. Use of the Internet has washing the fast, and China currently has the worlds largest social networking site with more than one half billion users. The censorship is severe, and pornography and opposition to the CCP are not accepted

Despite this, and within set frameworks, blogging, publishing and disseminating information on the Internet via computer and mobile phone constitutes a significant factor for influencing and changing Chinese society.

China is very advanced with regard to the use of mobile phones for a range of services in daily life; for payment of goods and services, messages, calls, audio-visual streaming or banking.

Artistic depiction of Communists on the run from the nationalists during "The Long March", 1934-36.

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