According to the constitution passed by the constituent assembly on November 26, 1949 and entered into force on January 26, 1950 (amended several times), India is a federal state (“Union of States”) with a parliamentary-democratic system of government. Union law can intervene in the existence of the federal states (member states). Of this, inter alia. in the States Reorganization Act of 1956, which reorganized the federal territory taking into account the language regions. Visit ezinesports.com for Asia between continuity and change.
The head of state and commander in chief of the army is the president. He is elected for 5 years by a body consisting of members of the Union Parliament and all state parliaments (re-election possible). In 2017 Ram Nath Kovind was elected to this office. He comes from the Dalit caste. The President formally exercises executive power of the Union, but always acts on the proposal of the Council of Ministers appointed by him and responsible to Parliament, chaired by the Prime Minister. The interaction between the President and the Council of Ministers is based on the conventions of the British cabinet system.
The legislature lies with the bicameral parliament, consisting of the upper house (Rajya Sabha, House of States) and the lower house (Lok Sabha, House of the People). The former consists of 245 members, 12 of whom are appointed by the president, the rest are elected by the state parliaments for 6 years (one third of the members every 2 years). The House of Lords is a permanent, indissoluble organ; its President is ex officio Vice-President of the Union. The 545 members of the lower house (a maximum of 13 represent the Union territories) – with the exception of 2 members of the Anglo-Indian community appointed by the president (descendants of Anglo-Indian mixed marriages) – are directly elected for 5 years by majority voting in single-constituencies (active voting age 18 years, passive 25 years). The Union Government, chaired by the Prime Minister appointed by the President, is answerable to Parliament. Legislative initiatives can be tabled by either House of Parliament; the entry into force of laws requires the consent of both chambers and the countersignature by the president. The House of Commons ultimately determines budgetary issues. the Legislative competence is divided between the union and states according to a three-category system (union, state and competing competence). While z. B. Foreign, defense and foreign trade policy as well as citizenship law and nuclear energy issues fall within the Union’s competence, areas such as police, health and education belong to the competence of the federal states. If there is a risk of external attacks or internal unrest, the President can declare a state of national emergency. It leads to an extensive suspension of the fundamental rights guaranteed by the constitution; In this case, the President can also place individual states under direct Union administration (President’s Rule) for a limited period of time.
Domestic politics: One of the most important problem areas in everyday political life is violence against women, Dalits and Adivasi. Rape and dowry murders often go unpunished. The execution of four rapists on March 20, 2020 met with broad approval from the population. Various Adivasi groups have founded separatist movements in northeast India. Maoist rebels, the so-called Naxalites , repeatedly cause unrest in eastern India. The domestic political challenges include the violent tensions between Muslims and Hindus. In May 2019, Prime Minister N. Modi became Prime Ministerre-elected by a clear majority by the Hindu nationalist BJP party. This has further increased tensions between Muslims and Hindus. It was triggered by the lifting of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir and the approval for the construction of a Hindu temple in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh.
Foreign policy: In relation to the emerging world power China , a rivalry is clearly noticeable. This is expressed in the border disputes in the Himalayas and the negative attitude towards the Chinese project ” New Silk Road “. Relations with neighboring Pakistan are very tense. Serious incidents have occurred repeatedly in Kashmir. There are special relationships with its eastern neighbor, Bangladesh. In May 2015, the last points of dispute over the course of the 4000 km long common border were settled.
India is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations , the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Colombo Plan. Economically, India belongs to the G 20 and BRICS countries.
The national flag goes back to the stripe flags used during the unrest of 1905, from 1920 they were red-white-green. M. K. Gandhi introduced the Dharmacakra (wheel of teaching) as a national symbol in 1921. In 1930 the red stripe was changed to orange and a blue Dharmacakra was added. Today’s orange-white-green flag was adopted by the National Assembly on July 22, 1947, before India’s official independence. According to today’s interpretation, orange (saffron) stands for the use of natural resources, white for the preservation of life and green for production; the blue color of the wheel for the sky and the sea. – The coat of arms (since 1949) shows the lion capital of the column, the Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC Was built in Sarnath. It shows three seated lions on a plate, on the front of which is depicted the Dharmacakra with 24 spokes flanked by a horse and a zebu. It symbolizes the eternal course of life and the ancient culture of India. The motto below the capital, which is mostly left out, is “Satyameva jayate” (truth alone prevails).
National holiday: On January 26th, the day of the republic is celebrated; August 15th commemorates independence in 1947.