In addition to the Middle Persian and the Partisan literature, we have from the early Middle Ages considerable literature in the Middle Iranian languages Sogdish (Buddhist, Manic, Christian Literature) and Khotanese (Buddhist Literature). Less voluminous linguistic memorials are handed over in khvarezmic and baktrisk.
Modern Iranian literature is available in the languages pashto (in Afghanistan), baluchi (in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran), Kurdish (in Iraq, Turkey, Armenia, Syria, Iran) and Ossetian (in the Caucasus). Afghan poetry had its heyday in the 17th and 18th centuries. The most important and original poet is Khushal Khan (died 1691). In Afghanistan, people are now working on the rise of modern literature in Pashto, a language that has its second cultural center in Peshawar in northwestern Pakistan. An attempt is also made to create a national literature on Dari, a form of Persian used as an official language in Afghanistan, alongside Pashto.
Among the Kurds there is both an older poem and a modern, European-influenced literature. The Ossetes have a not insignificant Russian-influenced literature from the 19th and 20th centuries; the most famous poet is Kosta Khetagurov. Afghans, Ossetians, Baluchians and Kurds alike have a rich epic and lyrical poetry. In Tajik, a form of Persian used as a national language in Tajikistan, considerable literature has emerged over the past few generations.