Oman Overview

By | October 29, 2020

Oman is located in the eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula and borders the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Oman also has a territory on the Musandam Peninsula that does not sit together with the rest of the country but is surrounded by the United Arab Emirates, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

Oman flagOman 2

Capital: Nutmeg
Biggest city: Nutmeg
State: sultanate
Language: Arabic
Religion: Islam
Surface: 212,460 km²
Population: 3.4 million (2012)
Population density: 16 residents per km²
Life expectancy: 74 years
Illiteracy: 19%
Currency: Omani rial (OMR)
1 rial = 21.80 kr
GDP per capita: $ 25,600 (2010)
Time difference: +3 hours
Electricity: 220/240 V AC, 50 Hz
National Day: November 18
Country area code: 968
2-Letter country abbreviation: IF (See more abbreviations on Abbreviationfinder)
Business: agriculture 50%, service sector 28%, industry 22%
Climate: predominantly hot and dry; light rainfall in the south from June to September

In ancient times, the area that is today Oman was an important trading post that held a role of transit port for trade between the two river cultures in Mesopotamia and the Indus culture. Archaeological finds indicate the existence of indigenous political formations. Oman’s wealth during this period consisted primarily of its significant holdings of copper.

Oman continued to be an important trading center. In 1508, the most important port city, Muscat, was taken by the Portuguese. They kept it until 1659 when it became part of the Ottoman Empire.

During the 19th century, Oman’s power grew and for a long time it had possessions in Baluchistan in present-day Pakistan and the island of Zanzibar in present-day Tanzania. Oman’s heyday ended in the late 19th century and in 1891 it became a British protectorate, which it was until 1971. Oman lost his last possessions in Pakistan in the 1950s.

Oman has been a constitutional monarchy with certain democratic rights since 1996, but the sultan still has significant power. Parliament (still called the Sultan’s Advisory Council) has relatively little real power. National Day on November 18 celebrates the Sultan’s birthday.

Oman has a stable and growing economy. Oil is very important for the country and is the main export commodity. But oil is not the only export. Dates, fruits and vegetables are also major exports. The country consists largely of desert. Most of the coast runs along mountain ranges and it is between the mountains and the coast that most large cities are located.


The following objects in Oman are inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The year in which the item was added to the list is indicated in parentheses.

  • Bahlafortet i Bahlaoasen (1987)
  • Ancient sites of Bat al-Khutm and al-Ayn (1988)
  • Olibanumlandet (2000)
  • Oman’s Irrigation System (2006)


Electricity and electrical outlets in Oman

Voltage: 240 V

Frequency: 50 Hz

Type of plug: G

Need an adapter: Yes, Swedes need an adapter.

Type G (BS 1363)

BS 1363, also called type G, is a British three-pronged plug.


Weather in Muscat

Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Christmas Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average temperature °C 20 22 25 30 34 36 35 34 32 29 26 22
Day °C 27 30 33 39 43 44 42 42 40 37 33 29
Night °C 12 14 17 22 25 27 28 25 24 21 18 15
Rain (mm) 0 0 0 3 6 1 1 1 1 0 1 0


According to Countryaah, Muscat is the capital of Oman, and has only 27,477 residents (2006). The metropolitan area extends southwest of Muscat and west along the coast and includes the much larger towns of Mutrah, Bawshar and as-Sib. This area has 718,917 residents (2006).

Muscat has ancient origins and is one of the oldest cities in the Middle East. In 1507, the Portuguese, led by Vasco da Gama, landed on their way to India there. They occupied the city so that they could control trade in the Persian Gulf. The Portuguese had a trading post in Oman until 1650 when Imam Sultan bin Saif I of the Yarubid dynasty expelled them and created his own state in Muscat.

The Yarubi Empire expanded from the end of the 0’s to around 0 through the incorporation of former Portuguese colonies into East Africa, and retained power until 1743. In 1746, the city was taken by the Al Bu Said dynasty, which still rules Oman. Muscat became the capital in 1793. Towards the end of the 19th century, a 4.5 meter high wall was built around the city. The city was attacked in 1895 and 1915 by Ibadites from the interior. The city has been modernized since 1970 and, thanks to the export of oil, is the most important trading port in the country.